Three Deutsch

Three Deutsch "as a three" auf Deutsch

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Three Deutsch

Übersetzung im Kontext von „on three“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context​: on the three, based on three, on all three, focus on three, on three points. Übersetzung für 'as a three' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch und viele weitere Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Übersetzung für 'three' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch von LANGENSCHEIDT – mit Beispielen, Synonymen und Aussprache. These Anglo-Frisian dialects are all members of the Ingvaeonic family of Female Professional Poker Players Germanic languages, which did not take part in the High German consonant shift. Recruit heroic characters to aide Big Bad Wolf Big Bad Wolf cause and dominate your enemies on military, technological, political, and economic fronts. Help Community portal Recent changes Upload file. They will then Heinz 57 what is said to them because it is German. The Structure of German. The Early New High German language gained more prestige than Low Best Betting Sites and became the language of science and literature. Help Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "one in three" – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Übersetzung Deutsch-Englisch für three im PONS Online-Wörterbuch nachschlagen! Gratis Vokabeltrainer, Verbtabellen, Aussprachefunktion. Übersetzung für 'as a three' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch und viele weitere Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'three' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten ✓ Aussprache und. Many translated example sentences containing "row of three" – German-English dictionary and search engine for German translations.

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However, examples like this are perceived by native speakers as excessively bureaucratic, stylistically awkward, or even satirical. The meaning of basic verbs can be expanded and sometimes radically changed through the use of a number of prefixes.

Other prefixes have only the vaguest meaning in themselves; ver- is found in a number of verbs with a large variety of meanings, as in ver suchen to try from suchen to seek , ver nehmen to interrogate from nehmen to take , ver teilen to distribute from teilen to share , ver stehen to understand from stehen to stand.

Other examples include the following: haften to stick , ver haften to detain ; kaufen to buy , ver kaufen to sell ; hören to hear , auf hören to cease ; fahren to drive , er fahren to experience.

Many German verbs have a separable prefix, often with an adverbial function. In finite verb forms, it is split off and moved to the end of the clause and is hence considered by some to be a "resultative particle".

For example, mitgehen , meaning "to go along", would be split, giving Gehen Sie mit? Literal: "Go you with? German word order is generally with the V2 word order restriction and also with the SOV word order restriction for main clauses.

For polar questions , exclamations, and wishes, the finite verb always has the first position. In subordinate clauses, the verb occurs at the very end.

German requires a verbal element main verb or auxiliary verb to appear second in the sentence. The verb is preceded by the topic of the sentence. The element in focus appears at the end of the sentence.

For a sentence without an auxiliary, these are several possibilities:. The position of a noun in a German sentence has no bearing on its being a subject, an object or another argument.

In a declarative sentence in English, if the subject does not occur before the predicate, the sentence could well be misunderstood.

The flexible word order also allows one to use language "tools" such as poetic meter and figures of speech more freely. When an auxiliary verb is present, it appears in second position, and the main verb appears at the end.

This occurs notably in the creation of the perfect tense. Many word orders are still possible:. The main verb may appear in first position to put stress on the action itself.

The auxiliary verb is still in second position. Sentences using modal verbs place the infinitive at the end. For example, the English sentence "Should he go home?

Thus, in sentences with several subordinate or relative clauses, the infinitives are clustered at the end. Compare the similar clustering of prepositions in the following highly contrived English sentence: "What did you bring that book that I do not like to be read to out of up for?

German subordinate clauses have all verbs clustered at the end. Given that auxiliaries encode future , passive , modality , and the perfect , very long chains of verbs at the end of the sentence can occur.

In these constructions, the past participle formed with ge- is often replaced by the infinitive. The order at the end of such strings is subject to variation, but the second one in the last example is unusual.

Most German vocabulary is derived from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family. Latin words were already imported into the predecessor of the German language during the Roman Empire and underwent all the characteristic phonetic changes in German.

Their origin is thus no longer recognizable for most speakers e. Borrowing from Latin continued after the fall of the Roman Empire during Christianization, mediated by the church and monasteries.

Another important influx of Latin words can be observed during Renaissance humanism. In a scholarly context, the borrowings from Latin have continued until today, in the last few decades often indirectly through borrowings from English.

During the 15th to 17th centuries, the influence of Italian was great, leading to many Italian loanwords in the fields of architecture, finance, and music.

The influence of the French language in the 17th to 19th centuries resulted in an even greater import of French words. The English influence was already present in the 19th century, but it did not become dominant until the second half of the 20th century.

Thus, Notker Labeo was able to translate Aristotelian treatises into pure Old High German in the decades after the year Even today, there are movements that try to promote the Ersatz substitution of foreign words that are deemed unnecessary with German alternatives.

As in English, there are many pairs of synonyms due to the enrichment of the Germanic vocabulary with loanwords from Latin and Latinized Greek. These words often have different connotations from their Germanic counterparts and are usually perceived as more scholarly.

The size of the vocabulary of German is difficult to estimate. The Deutsches Wörterbuch German Dictionary initiated by Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm already contained over , headwords in its first edition.

The modern German scientific vocabulary is estimated at nine million words and word groups based on the analysis of 35 million sentences of a corpus in Leipzig, which as of July included million words in total.

The Duden is the de facto official dictionary of the German language, first published by Konrad Duden in The Duden is updated regularly, with new editions appearing every four or five years.

As of August [update] , it was in its 27th edition and in 12 volumes, each covering different aspects such as loanwords , etymology , pronunciation , synonyms , and so forth.

The first of these volumes, Die deutsche Rechtschreibung German Orthography , has long been the prescriptive source for the spelling of German.

The Duden has become the bible of the German language, being the definitive set of rules regarding grammar, spelling and usage of German.

It is the Austrian counterpart to the German Duden and contains a number of terms unique to Austrian German or more frequently used or differently pronounced there.

Since the 39th edition in the orthography of the ÖWB has been adjusted to the German spelling reform of The dictionary is also officially used in the Italian province of South Tyrol.

This is a selection of cognates in both English and German. Instead of the usual infinitive ending -en , German verbs are indicated by a hyphen after their stems.

Words that are written with capital letters in German are nouns. German is written in the Latin alphabet. Because legibility and convenience set certain boundaries, compounds consisting of more than three or four nouns are almost exclusively found in humorous contexts.

In contrast, although English can also string nouns together, it usually separates the nouns with spaces.

For example, "toilet bowl cleaner". Umlaut vowels ä, ö, ü are commonly transcribed with ae, oe, and ue if the umlauts are not available on the keyboard or other medium used.

Some operating systems use key sequences to extend the set of possible characters to include, amongst other things, umlauts; in Microsoft Windows this is done using Alt codes.

German readers understand these transcriptions although they appear unusual , but they are avoided if the regular umlauts are available, because they are a makeshift and not proper spelling.

In Westphalia and Schleswig-Holstein, city and family names exist where the extra e has a vowel lengthening effect, e.

There is no general agreement on where letters with umlauts occur in the sorting sequence. Telephone directories treat them by replacing them with the base vowel followed by an e.

Some dictionaries sort each umlauted vowel as a separate letter after the base vowel, but more commonly words with umlauts are ordered immediately after the same word without umlauts.

As an example in a telephone book Ärzte occurs after Adressenverlage but before Anlagenbauer because Ä is replaced by Ae. In a dictionary Ärzte comes after Arzt , but in some dictionaries Ärzte and all other words starting with Ä may occur after all words starting with A.

Written German also typically uses an alternative opening inverted comma quotation mark as in "Guten Morgen! Until the early 20th century, German was mostly printed in blackletter typefaces mostly in Fraktur , but also in Schwabacher and written in corresponding handwriting for example Kurrent and Sütterlin.

These variants of the Latin alphabet are very different from the serif or sans-serif Antiqua typefaces used today, and the handwritten forms in particular are difficult for the untrained to read.

The printed forms, however, were claimed by some to be more readable when used for Germanic languages. The Nazis initially promoted Fraktur and Schwabacher because they were considered Aryan , but they abolished them in , claiming that these letters were Jewish.

The Fraktur script however remains present in everyday life in pub signs, beer brands and other forms of advertisement, where it is used to convey a certain rusticality and antiquity.

Many Antiqua typefaces also include the long s. A specific set of rules applies for the use of long s in German text, but nowadays it is rarely used in Antiqua typesetting.

The long s only appears in lower case. The orthography reform of led to public controversy and considerable dispute. After 10 years, without any intervention by the federal parliament, a major revision was installed in , just in time for the coming school year.

In , some traditional spellings were finally invalidated; however, in , many of the old comma rules were again put in force. Traditionally, this letter was used in three situations:.

In German, vowels excluding diphthongs; see below are either short or long , as follows:. In general, the short vowels are open and the long vowels are close.

Whether any particular vowel letter represents the long or short phoneme is not completely predictable, although the following regularities exist:. Both of these rules have exceptions e.

For an i that is neither in the combination ie making it long nor followed by a double consonant or cluster making it short , there is no general rule.

In some cases, there are regional differences. In central Germany Hesse , the o in the proper name "Hoffmann" is pronounced long, whereas most other Germans would pronounce it short.

The same applies to the e in the geographical name " Mecklenburg " for people in that region. German vowels can form the following digraphs in writing and diphthongs in pronunciation ; note that the pronunciation of some of them ei, äu, eu is very different from what one would expect when considering the component letters:.

With approximately 26 phonemes, the German consonant system exhibits an average number of consonants in comparison with other languages.

The consonant inventory of the standard language is shown below. German does not have any dental fricatives as English th.

The th sound, which the English language still has, disappeared on the continent in German with the consonant shifts between the 8th and 10th centuries.

The German language is used in German literature and can be traced back to the Middle Ages , with the most notable authors of the period being Walther von der Vogelweide and Wolfram von Eschenbach.

The Nibelungenlied , whose author remains unknown, is also an important work of the epoch. The fairy tales collected and published by Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm in the 19th century became famous throughout the world.

Reformer and theologian Martin Luther , who was the first to translate the Bible into German, is widely credited for having set the basis for the modern "High German" language.

English has taken many loanwords from German, often without any change of spelling aside from frequently eliminating umlauts and not capitalizing nouns :.

The government-backed Goethe-Institut [85] named after Johann Wolfgang von Goethe aims to enhance the knowledge of German culture and language within Europe and the rest of the world.

This is done by holding exhibitions and conferences with German-related themes, and providing training and guidance in the learning and use of the German language.

The Dortmund-based Verein Deutsche Sprache VDS , founded in , supports the German language and is the largest language association of citizens in the world.

The VDS has more than thirty-five thousand members in over seventy countries. Its founder, statistics professor Dr.

Walter Krämer, has remained chairperson of the association from its formation. The German state broadcaster Deutsche Welle provides radio and television broadcasts in German and 30 other languages across the globe.

Deutsche Welle also provides an e-learning website for teaching German. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Deutsch disambiguation and German disambiguation.

Not to be confused with Germanic languages. West Germanic language. This article needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

Language family. German Standard German. Austrian Standard German. Writing system. Signed forms. Co- Official and majority language.

Co-official, but not majority language. Non-statutory minority language. Main article: History of German. Main article: Old High German.

Old Frisian Alt-Friesisch. Old Saxon Alt-Sächsisch. Old Franconian Alt-Fränkisch. Old Alemannic Alt-Alemannisch.

Old Bavarian Alt-Bairisch. Main article: Middle High German. Main article: Early New High German. Main article: Geographical distribution of German speakers.

Austria 8. Switzerland 5. Italy South Tyrol 0. Other 7. German Sprachraum : German is the official language de jure or de facto and first language of the majority of the population.

German is a co-official language but not the first language of the majority of the population. German or a variety of German is spoken by a sizeable minority but has no legal recognition.

Most of Austria lies in the Bavarian dialect area; only the very west of the country is. Alemannic -speaking. Bavarian German is the most spoken language in the northernmost Italian province of Bolzano South Tyrol.

The capital of Bolzano and some southern suburbs are, however, predominantly. Italian -speaking. Swiss German is one of four national languages of Switzerland , and it is spoken in seven of the country's ten largest towns.

Luxembourg lies in the Moselle Franconian dialect area. In Belgium , German is spoken in the country's German-speaking Community , in the very east of the country.

The Alemannic and. Franconian dialects of Alsace , northeastern France , are endangered. The Franconian and.

Alemannic dialects of the Department of Moselle , northeastern France , are endangered. Main article: List of territorial entities where German is an official language.

Main article: German language in Namibia. Main article: Brazilian German. Main article: Standard German. Main article: German dialects.

Main article: Low German. Main article: High German languages. Main article: German grammar. Further information: Grammatical gender in German.

Main article: German verbs. Main articles: German orthography and German braille. German alphabet. Listen to a German speaker recite the alphabet in German.

Further information: 2nd Orthographic Conference German , Antiqua—Fraktur dispute , and German orthography reform of Main article: German orthography reform of Main article: German phonology.

Further information: High German consonant shift. Main article: German literature. Main article: List of German expressions in English.

Main article: Goethe-Institut. Main article: Deutsche Welle. Language portal Germany portal Austria portal Switzerland portal.

In the second half of the 19th century, Germany displaced France as the prime role model for Chile. This however met some criticism when Eduardo de la Barra wrote disparagingly about a "German bewitchment".

German influence in science and culture declined after World War I , yet German remained highly prestigious and influential after the war.

European Commission. June Archived from the original PDF on 6 January Retrieved 24 July Institute for the German Language. Retrieved 11 October In: Jan Goossens Hrsg.

Karl Wachholtz, 2. Auflage, Neumünster , S. Glottolog 3. The Daily Telegraph. BBC News. Retrieved 6 May An Anthology of German Literature. Zur Geschichte der Deutschen Sprache.

Oxford University. Amsterdam; Philadelphia: J. A history of the German language: with special reference to the cultural and social forces that shaped the standard literary language Rev.

Seattle: University of Washington Press. Retrieved 13 July Oxford: Oxford University Press. The German language. London: Faber.

Geschichte der deutschen Sprache. A history of the German language. University of California Libraries.

The German Nation and Martin Luther. Orthographischen Konferenz in der Geschichte der deutschen Rechtschreibung.

Jahrgang , Nr. Reine und gemässigte Hochlautung mit Aussprachewörterbuch. Journal of the Simplified Spelling Society.

J21 : 22—24, Archived from the original on 23 September New York. Retrieved 7 July Retrieved 18 July Berlin: Inform-Verlag.

Retrieved 11 July Archived from the original on 4 March Retrieved 20 June Archived from the original on 8 August Supplement of the Allgemeine Zeitung.

Archived from the original PDF on 24 June Retrieved 23 June Markedness and salience in language contact and second-language acquisition: evidence from a non-canonical contact language.

Language Sciences. Elsevier Ltd. Retrieved 15 March Archived from the original on 26 June February Archived from the original on 30 March Retrieved 30 March Ideas viajeras y sus objetos.

Contacto de lenguas en el sur de Chile". LV 1 : — ABC News. Retrieved 23 February Archived from the original on 8 January Retrieved 18 October Pidgins and Creoles: Volume 2, Reference Survey 1st ed.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 12 June Levada Centre. Archived from the original on 10 May Retrieved 10 May Retrieved 17 October Retrieved 3 May Inter- und übernationale Beziehungen".

Deutsche Sprachgeschichte vom Spätmittelalter bis zur Gegenwart. Band III: Berlin; New York: de Gruyter. Retrieved 21 August Walter de Gruyter, Berlin Retrieved 1 December Variation in German.

Aufl ed. USA: Lulupress. Archived from the original on 15 May In one of his essays, T. Eliot reproduces and then comments upon a column in the Evening Standard of May 10, headed " 'Back to the Kitchen' Creed Denounced":.

Miss Bower of the Ministry of Transport, who moved that the association should take steps to obtain the removal of the ban i.

The report, by its abbreviation, may do less than justice to Miss Bower, but I do not think that I am unfair to the report, in finding the implication that what is Nazi is wrong, and need not be discussed on its own merits.

Incidentally, the term "relegation of women" prejudices the issue. Might one suggest that the kitchen, the children and the church could be considered to have a claim upon the attention of married women?

What is miserable is a system that makes the dual wage necessary. During World War II in Germany, women eventually were put back in the factories because of the growing losses in the armed forces and the desperate lack of equipment on the front lines.

The phrase continued to be used in feminist and anti-feminist writing in the English-speaking world in the s and s. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 21 January Süddeutsche Zeitung. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 3 May Women and Family in Contemporary Japan.

Patriarchy in East Asia. Deutsches sprichwörter-lexikon: bd. Deutsches Sprichwörterlexikon: Ein Hausschatz für das deutsche Volk.

A to Gothen ]. Die weisheit auf der gasse: oder Sinn und geist deutscher sprichwörter [ The wisdom of the streets; or, meaning and spirit of German proverbs ].

Veith und M. The Unitarian, a monthly magazine of liberal christianity. The Empress's four K's, in: Westminster Gazette, New York, Charton Co.

Eliot, Christianity and Culture.

Three Deutsch

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With the increasing wealth and geographic spread of the Germanic groups came greater use of German in the courts of nobles as the standard language of official proceedings and literature.

While these efforts were still regionally bound, German began to be used in place of Latin for certain official purposes, leading to a greater need for regularity in written conventions.

While the major changes of the MHG period were socio-cultural, German was still undergoing significant linguistic changes in syntax, phonetics, and morphology as well e.

A great wealth of texts survives from the MHG period. Significantly, these texts include a number of impressive secular works, such as the Nibelungenlied , an epic poem telling the story of the dragon -slayer Siegfried c.

Also noteworthy is the Sachsenspiegel , the first book of laws written in Middle Low German c. The abundance and especially the secular character of the literature of the MHG period demonstrate the beginnings of a standardized written form of German, as well as the desire of poets and authors to be understood by individuals on supra-dialectal terms.

While these states were still under the control of the Holy Roman Empire and far from any form of unification, the desire for a cohesive written language that would be understandable across the many German-speaking principalities and kingdoms was stronger than ever.

As a spoken language German remained highly fractured throughout this period, with a vast number of often mutually incomprehensible regional dialects being spoken throughout the German states; the invention of the printing press c.

One of the central events in the development of ENHG was the publication of Luther's translation of the Bible into German the New Testament was published in ; the Old Testament was published in parts and completed in Copies of Luther's Bible featured a long list of glosses for each region, translating words which were unknown in the region into the regional dialect.

Luther said the following concerning his translation method:. One who would talk German does not ask the Latin how he shall do it; he must ask the mother in the home, the children on the streets, the common man in the market-place and note carefully how they talk, then translate accordingly.

They will then understand what is said to them because it is German. When Christ says 'ex abundantia cordis os loquitur,' I would translate, if I followed the papists, aus dem Überflusz des Herzens redet der Mund.

But tell me is this talking German? What German understands such stuff? No, the mother in the home and the plain man would say, Wesz das Herz voll ist, des gehet der Mund über.

With Luther's rendering of the Bible in the vernacular, German asserted itself against the dominance of Latin as a legitimate language for courtly, literary, and now ecclesiastical subject-matter.

Furthermore, his Bible was ubiquitous in the German states: nearly every household possessed a copy. German was the language of commerce and government in the Habsburg Empire , which encompassed a large area of Central and Eastern Europe.

Until the midth century, it was essentially the language of townspeople throughout most of the Empire.

Its use indicated that the speaker was a merchant or someone from an urban area, regardless of nationality.

Others, such as Pozsony German: Pressburg , now Bratislava , were originally settled during the Habsburg period and were primarily German at that time.

The most comprehensive guide to the vocabulary of the German language is found within the Deutsches Wörterbuch. This dictionary was created by the Brothers Grimm and is composed of 16 parts which were issued between and In , the 2nd Orthographical Conference ended with a complete standardization of the German language in its written form and the Duden Handbook was declared its standard definition.

In Northern Germany, Standard German was a foreign language to most inhabitants, whose native dialects were subsets of Low German.

It was usually encountered only in writing or formal speech; in fact, most of Standard German was a written language, not identical to any spoken dialect, throughout the German-speaking area until well into the 19th century.

Official revisions of some of the rules from were not issued until the controversial German orthography reform of was made the official standard by governments of all German-speaking countries.

Approximate distribution of native German speakers assuming a rounded total of 95 million worldwide. Due to the German diaspora as well as German being the second most widely spoken language in Europe and the third most widely taught foreign language in the US [28] and the EU in upper secondary education [29] amongst others, the geographical distribution of German speakers or "Germanophones" spans all inhabited continents.

As for the number of speakers of any language worldwide, an assessment is always compromised by the lack of sufficient, reliable data.

In Europe, German is the second most widely spoken mother tongue after Russian and the second biggest language in terms of overall speakers after English.

The area in central Europe where the majority of the population speaks German as a first language and has German as a co- official language is called the "German Sprachraum ".

It comprises an estimated 88 million native speakers and 10 million who speak German as a second language e. Although expulsions and forced assimilation after the two World Wars greatly diminished them, minority communities of mostly bilingual German native speakers exist in areas both adjacent to and detached from the Sprachraum.

In France , the High German varieties of Alsatian and Moselle Franconian are identified as " regional languages ", but the European Charter for Regional and Minority Languages of has not yet been ratified by the government.

Namibia was a colony of the German Empire from to Mostly descending from German settlers who immigrated during this time, 25—30, people still speak German as a native tongue today.

Although it is nearly extinct today, some older Namibians still have some knowledge of it. German, along with English and Afrikaans , was a co-official language of Namibia from until its independence from South Africa in At this point, the Namibian government perceived Afrikaans and German as symbols of apartheid and colonialism, and decided English would be the sole official language, stating that it was a "neutral" language as there were virtually no English native speakers in Namibia at that time.

Today, German is used in a wide variety of spheres, especially business and tourism, as well as the churches most notably the German-speaking Evangelical Lutheran Church in Namibia GELK , schools e.

Hoffmann , radio the Namibian Broadcasting Corporation produces radio programs in German , and music e. The Allgemeine Zeitung is one of the three biggest newspapers in Namibia and the only German-language daily in Africa.

Mostly originating from different waves of immigration during the 19th and 20th centuries, an estimated 12, people speak German or a German variety as a first language in South Africa.

The South African constitution identifies German as a "commonly used" language and the Pan South African Language Board is obligated to promote and ensure respect for it.

In the United States, the states of North Dakota and South Dakota are the only states where German is the most common language spoken at home after English.

The impact of nineteenth century German immigration to southern Chile was such that Valdivia was for a while a Spanish-German bilingual city with "German signboards and placards alongside the Spanish".

In Australia , the state of South Australia experienced a pronounced wave of immigration in the s from Prussia particularly the Silesia region.

With the prolonged isolation from other German speakers and contact with Australian English , a unique dialect known as Barossa German developed, spoken predominantly in the Barossa Valley near Adelaide.

Usage of German sharply declined with the advent of World War I , due to the prevailing anti-German sentiment in the population and related government action.

It continued to be used as a first language into the 20th century, but its use is now limited to a few older speakers. German migration to New Zealand in the 19th century was less pronounced than migration from Britain, Ireland, and perhaps even Scandinavia.

Despite this there were significant pockets of German-speaking communities which lasted until the first decades of the 20th century.

German speakers settled principally in Puhoi , Nelson , and Gore. At the last census , 36, people in New Zealand spoke German, making it the third most spoken European language after English and French and overall the ninth most spoken language.

There is also an important German creole being studied and recovered, named Unserdeutsch , spoken in the former German colony of German New Guinea , across Micronesia and in northern Australia i.

The risk of its extinction is serious and efforts to revive interest in the language are being implemented by scholars.

Like French and Spanish, German has become a standard second foreign language in the western world. According to a survey, 47 million people within the EU i.

The basis of Standard German is the Luther Bible , which was translated by Martin Luther and which had originated from the Saxon court language it being a convenient norm.

It is important to note, however, that the colloquial standard German differs greatly from the formal written language, especially in grammar and syntax, in which it has been influenced by dialectal speech.

Standard German differs regionally among German-speaking countries in vocabulary and some instances of pronunciation and even grammar and orthography.

This variation must not be confused with the variation of local dialects. Even though the regional varieties of standard German are only somewhat influenced by the local dialects, they are very distinct.

German is thus considered a pluricentric language. In most regions, the speakers use a continuum from more dialectal varieties to more standard varieties depending on the circumstances.

In German linguistics , German dialects are distinguished from varieties of standard German. The varieties of standard German refer to the different local varieties of the pluricentric standard German.

They differ only slightly in lexicon and phonology. In certain regions, they have replaced the traditional German dialects, especially in Northern Germany.

In the German-speaking parts of Switzerland , mixtures of dialect and standard are very seldom used, and the use of Standard German is largely restricted to the written language.

Swiss Standard German is used in the Swiss education system, while Austrian Standard German is officially used in the Austrian education system.

A mixture of dialect and standard does not normally occur in Northern Germany either. Because their linguistic distance is greater, they do not mesh with Standard German the way that High German dialects such as Bavarian, Swabian, and Hessian can.

The German dialects are the traditional local varieties of the language; many of them are not mutually intelligibile with standard German, and they have great differences in lexicon , phonology , and syntax.

If a narrow definition of language based on mutual intelligibility is used, many German dialects are considered to be separate languages for instance in the Ethnologue.

However, such a point of view is unusual in German linguistics. The variation among the German dialects is considerable, with often only neighbouring dialects being mutually intelligible.

Some dialects are not intelligible to people who know only Standard German. Middle Low German was the lingua franca of the Hanseatic League.

It was the predominant language in Northern Germany until the 16th century. In , the Luther Bible was published. The translation is considered to be an important step towards the evolution of the Early New High German.

It aimed to be understandable to a broad audience and was based mainly on Central and Upper German varieties. The Early New High German language gained more prestige than Low German and became the language of science and literature.

Around the same time, the Hanseatic League, based around northern ports, lost its importance as new trade routes to Asia and the Americas were established, and the most powerful German states of that period were located in Middle and Southern Germany.

The 18th and 19th centuries were marked by mass education in Standard German in schools. Gradually, Low German came to be politically viewed as a mere dialect spoken by the uneducated.

Sometimes, Low Saxon and Low Franconian varieties are grouped together because both are unaffected by the High German consonant shift.

However, the proportion of the population who can understand and speak it has decreased continuously since World War II. The largest cities in the Low German area are Hamburg and Dortmund.

The Low Franconian dialects are the dialects that are more closely related to Dutch than to Low German. Most of the Low Franconian dialects are spoken in the Netherlands and Belgium , where they are considered as dialects of Dutch, which is itself a Low Franconian language.

These dialects are more closely related to Dutch also North Low Franconian than the South Low Franconian dialects also referred to as East Limburgish and, east of the Rhine , Bergish , which are spoken in the south of the German Low Franconian language area.

The High German varieties spoken by the Ashkenazi Jews have several unique features and are considered as a separate language, Yiddish , written with the Hebrew alphabet.

Modern Standard German is mostly based on Central German dialects. These dialects are considered as.

Luxembourgish as well as the Transylvanian Saxon dialect spoken in Transylvania are based on Moselle Franconian dialects. They consist of the East and South Franconian dialects.

The East Franconian dialect branch is one of the most spoken dialect branches in Germany. These dialects are spoken in the region of Franconia and in the central parts of Saxon Vogtland.

The largest cities in the East Franconian area are Nuremberg and Würzburg. South Franconian is mainly spoken in northern Baden-Württemberg in Germany, but also in the northeasternmost part of the region of Alsace in France.

While these dialects are considered as dialects of German in Baden-Württemberg, they are considered as dialects of Alsatian in Alsace most Alsatian dialects are Low Alemannic , however.

The largest cities in the South Franconian area are Karlsruhe and Heilbronn. The Upper German dialects are the Alemannic dialects in the west and the Bavarian dialects in the east.

The Alemannic dialects are considered as Alsatian in Alsace. The largest cities in the Alemannic area are Stuttgart and Zürich.

The largest cities in the Bavarian area are Vienna and Munich. German is a fusional language with a moderate degree of inflection , with three grammatical genders ; as such, there can be a large number of words derived from the same root.

German nouns inflect by case, gender, and number:. This degree of inflection is considerably less than in Old High German and other old Indo-European languages such as Latin , Ancient Greek , and Sanskrit , and it is also somewhat less than, for instance, Old English , modern Icelandic , or Russian.

The three genders have collapsed in the plural. In nouns, inflection for case is required in the singular for strong masculine and neuter nouns only in the genitive and in the dative only in fixed or archaic expressions , and even this is losing ground to substitutes in informal speech.

Weak masculine nouns share a common case ending for genitive, dative, and accusative in the singular. Feminine nouns are not declined in the singular.

The plural has an inflection for the dative. In total, seven inflectional endings not counting plural markers exist in German: -s, -es, -n, -ns, -en, -ens, -e.

In German orthography, nouns and most words with the syntactical function of nouns are capitalised to make it easier for readers to determine the function of a word within a sentence Am Freitag ging ich einkaufen.

Like the other Germanic languages, German forms noun compounds in which the first noun modifies the category given by the second: Hundehütte "dog hut"; specifically: "dog kennel".

Unlike English, whose newer compounds or combinations of longer nouns are often written "open" with separating spaces, German like some other Germanic languages nearly always uses the "closed" form without spaces, for example: Baumhaus "tree house".

Like English, German allows arbitrarily long compounds in theory see also English compounds. The longest German word verified to be actually in albeit very limited use is Rindfleischetikettierungsüberwachungsaufgabenübertragungsgesetz , which, literally translated, is "beef labelling supervision duties assignment law" [from Rind cattle , Fleisch meat , Etikettierung s labelling , Überwachung s supervision , Aufgaben duties , Übertragung s assignment , Gesetz law ].

However, examples like this are perceived by native speakers as excessively bureaucratic, stylistically awkward, or even satirical.

The meaning of basic verbs can be expanded and sometimes radically changed through the use of a number of prefixes. Other prefixes have only the vaguest meaning in themselves; ver- is found in a number of verbs with a large variety of meanings, as in ver suchen to try from suchen to seek , ver nehmen to interrogate from nehmen to take , ver teilen to distribute from teilen to share , ver stehen to understand from stehen to stand.

Other examples include the following: haften to stick , ver haften to detain ; kaufen to buy , ver kaufen to sell ; hören to hear , auf hören to cease ; fahren to drive , er fahren to experience.

Many German verbs have a separable prefix, often with an adverbial function. In finite verb forms, it is split off and moved to the end of the clause and is hence considered by some to be a "resultative particle".

For example, mitgehen , meaning "to go along", would be split, giving Gehen Sie mit? Literal: "Go you with? German word order is generally with the V2 word order restriction and also with the SOV word order restriction for main clauses.

For polar questions , exclamations, and wishes, the finite verb always has the first position. In subordinate clauses, the verb occurs at the very end.

German requires a verbal element main verb or auxiliary verb to appear second in the sentence. The verb is preceded by the topic of the sentence.

The element in focus appears at the end of the sentence. For a sentence without an auxiliary, these are several possibilities:.

The position of a noun in a German sentence has no bearing on its being a subject, an object or another argument. In a declarative sentence in English, if the subject does not occur before the predicate, the sentence could well be misunderstood.

The flexible word order also allows one to use language "tools" such as poetic meter and figures of speech more freely. When an auxiliary verb is present, it appears in second position, and the main verb appears at the end.

This occurs notably in the creation of the perfect tense. Many word orders are still possible:. The main verb may appear in first position to put stress on the action itself.

The auxiliary verb is still in second position. Sentences using modal verbs place the infinitive at the end.

For example, the English sentence "Should he go home? Thus, in sentences with several subordinate or relative clauses, the infinitives are clustered at the end.

Compare the similar clustering of prepositions in the following highly contrived English sentence: "What did you bring that book that I do not like to be read to out of up for?

German subordinate clauses have all verbs clustered at the end. Given that auxiliaries encode future , passive , modality , and the perfect , very long chains of verbs at the end of the sentence can occur.

In these constructions, the past participle formed with ge- is often replaced by the infinitive. The order at the end of such strings is subject to variation, but the second one in the last example is unusual.

Most German vocabulary is derived from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family. Latin words were already imported into the predecessor of the German language during the Roman Empire and underwent all the characteristic phonetic changes in German.

Their origin is thus no longer recognizable for most speakers e. Borrowing from Latin continued after the fall of the Roman Empire during Christianization, mediated by the church and monasteries.

Another important influx of Latin words can be observed during Renaissance humanism. In a scholarly context, the borrowings from Latin have continued until today, in the last few decades often indirectly through borrowings from English.

During the 15th to 17th centuries, the influence of Italian was great, leading to many Italian loanwords in the fields of architecture, finance, and music.

The influence of the French language in the 17th to 19th centuries resulted in an even greater import of French words. The English influence was already present in the 19th century, but it did not become dominant until the second half of the 20th century.

Thus, Notker Labeo was able to translate Aristotelian treatises into pure Old High German in the decades after the year Even today, there are movements that try to promote the Ersatz substitution of foreign words that are deemed unnecessary with German alternatives.

As in English, there are many pairs of synonyms due to the enrichment of the Germanic vocabulary with loanwords from Latin and Latinized Greek.

These words often have different connotations from their Germanic counterparts and are usually perceived as more scholarly.

The size of the vocabulary of German is difficult to estimate. The Deutsches Wörterbuch German Dictionary initiated by Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm already contained over , headwords in its first edition.

The modern German scientific vocabulary is estimated at nine million words and word groups based on the analysis of 35 million sentences of a corpus in Leipzig, which as of July included million words in total.

The Duden is the de facto official dictionary of the German language, first published by Konrad Duden in The Duden is updated regularly, with new editions appearing every four or five years.

As of August [update] , it was in its 27th edition and in 12 volumes, each covering different aspects such as loanwords , etymology , pronunciation , synonyms , and so forth.

The first of these volumes, Die deutsche Rechtschreibung German Orthography , has long been the prescriptive source for the spelling of German.

The Duden has become the bible of the German language, being the definitive set of rules regarding grammar, spelling and usage of German.

It is the Austrian counterpart to the German Duden and contains a number of terms unique to Austrian German or more frequently used or differently pronounced there.

Since the 39th edition in the orthography of the ÖWB has been adjusted to the German spelling reform of The dictionary is also officially used in the Italian province of South Tyrol.

This is a selection of cognates in both English and German. Instead of the usual infinitive ending -en , German verbs are indicated by a hyphen after their stems.

Words that are written with capital letters in German are nouns. German is written in the Latin alphabet. Because legibility and convenience set certain boundaries, compounds consisting of more than three or four nouns are almost exclusively found in humorous contexts.

In contrast, although English can also string nouns together, it usually separates the nouns with spaces. For example, "toilet bowl cleaner".

Umlaut vowels ä, ö, ü are commonly transcribed with ae, oe, and ue if the umlauts are not available on the keyboard or other medium used.

Some operating systems use key sequences to extend the set of possible characters to include, amongst other things, umlauts; in Microsoft Windows this is done using Alt codes.

German readers understand these transcriptions although they appear unusual , but they are avoided if the regular umlauts are available, because they are a makeshift and not proper spelling.

In Westphalia and Schleswig-Holstein, city and family names exist where the extra e has a vowel lengthening effect, e. There is no general agreement on where letters with umlauts occur in the sorting sequence.

Telephone directories treat them by replacing them with the base vowel followed by an e. Some dictionaries sort each umlauted vowel as a separate letter after the base vowel, but more commonly words with umlauts are ordered immediately after the same word without umlauts.

As an example in a telephone book Ärzte occurs after Adressenverlage but before Anlagenbauer because Ä is replaced by Ae.

In a dictionary Ärzte comes after Arzt , but in some dictionaries Ärzte and all other words starting with Ä may occur after all words starting with A.

Written German also typically uses an alternative opening inverted comma quotation mark as in "Guten Morgen!

Until the early 20th century, German was mostly printed in blackletter typefaces mostly in Fraktur , but also in Schwabacher and written in corresponding handwriting for example Kurrent and Sütterlin.

These variants of the Latin alphabet are very different from the serif or sans-serif Antiqua typefaces used today, and the handwritten forms in particular are difficult for the untrained to read.

The printed forms, however, were claimed by some to be more readable when used for Germanic languages.

The Nazis initially promoted Fraktur and Schwabacher because they were considered Aryan , but they abolished them in , claiming that these letters were Jewish.

The Fraktur script however remains present in everyday life in pub signs, beer brands and other forms of advertisement, where it is used to convey a certain rusticality and antiquity.

Many Antiqua typefaces also include the long s. A specific set of rules applies for the use of long s in German text, but nowadays it is rarely used in Antiqua typesetting.

The long s only appears in lower case. The orthography reform of led to public controversy and considerable dispute.

After 10 years, without any intervention by the federal parliament, a major revision was installed in , just in time for the coming school year.

In , some traditional spellings were finally invalidated; however, in , many of the old comma rules were again put in force.

Traditionally, this letter was used in three situations:. In German, vowels excluding diphthongs; see below are either short or long , as follows:.

In general, the short vowels are open and the long vowels are close. Whether any particular vowel letter represents the long or short phoneme is not completely predictable, although the following regularities exist:.

Both of these rules have exceptions e. For an i that is neither in the combination ie making it long nor followed by a double consonant or cluster making it short , there is no general rule.

In some cases, there are regional differences. In central Germany Hesse , the o in the proper name "Hoffmann" is pronounced long, whereas most other Germans would pronounce it short.

The same applies to the e in the geographical name " Mecklenburg " for people in that region. German vowels can form the following digraphs in writing and diphthongs in pronunciation ; note that the pronunciation of some of them ei, äu, eu is very different from what one would expect when considering the component letters:.

With approximately 26 phonemes, the German consonant system exhibits an average number of consonants in comparison with other languages.

The consonant inventory of the standard language is shown below. German does not have any dental fricatives as English th.

The th sound, which the English language still has, disappeared on the continent in German with the consonant shifts between the 8th and 10th centuries.

The German language is used in German literature and can be traced back to the Middle Ages , with the most notable authors of the period being Walther von der Vogelweide and Wolfram von Eschenbach.

The Nibelungenlied , whose author remains unknown, is also an important work of the epoch. The fairy tales collected and published by Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm in the 19th century became famous throughout the world.

Reformer and theologian Martin Luther , who was the first to translate the Bible into German, is widely credited for having set the basis for the modern "High German" language.

English has taken many loanwords from German, often without any change of spelling aside from frequently eliminating umlauts and not capitalizing nouns :.

The government-backed Goethe-Institut [85] named after Johann Wolfgang von Goethe aims to enhance the knowledge of German culture and language within Europe and the rest of the world.

This is done by holding exhibitions and conferences with German-related themes, and providing training and guidance in the learning and use of the German language.

The Dortmund-based Verein Deutsche Sprache VDS , founded in , supports the German language and is the largest language association of citizens in the world.

The VDS has more than thirty-five thousand members in over seventy countries. Its founder, statistics professor Dr. Walter Krämer, has remained chairperson of the association from its formation.

The German state broadcaster Deutsche Welle provides radio and television broadcasts in German and 30 other languages across the globe.

Deutsche Welle also provides an e-learning website for teaching German. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Deutsch disambiguation and German disambiguation.

Not to be confused with Germanic languages. West Germanic language. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Language family. German Standard German. Austrian Standard German. Writing system.

Signed forms. Co- Official and majority language. Co-official, but not majority language. Non-statutory minority language.

Main article: History of German. Main article: Old High German. Old Frisian Alt-Friesisch. Old Saxon Alt-Sächsisch.

Old Franconian Alt-Fränkisch. Old Alemannic Alt-Alemannisch. It now has a mostly derogatory connotation, describing what is seen as an antiquated female role model in contemporary Western society.

She is likely to have adopted it from one of several similar German "sayings by number". The most suggestive of these is listed in the second volume of German proverbs Glossary: A Treasury for the German People published in by Karl Friedrich Wilhelm Wander : "Four K's are requisite of a pious woman, namely, that she keeps regard for church, chamber, kitchen, children.

In "The newspaper for the German Nobility" published this latter saying in its traditional last page "feature" short statements.

The phrase started to appear in its current form in writing in the early s. Remick in A Woman's Travel-notes on England in In August the influential British liberal Westminster Gazette elaborated on the story, mentioning, as well, the 4th "K".

A story titled "The American Lady and the Kaiser. The Empress's four K's" [11] describes an audience given by the Kaiser to two American suffragettes.

After hearing them out, the Kaiser replies: "I agree with my wife. And do you know what she says? She says that women have no business interfering with anything outside the four K's.

When Hitler came to power in , he introduced a Law for the Encouragement of Marriage, which entitled newly married couples to a loan of marks around 9 months' average wages at that time.

On their first child, they could keep marks. On their second, they could keep another They reclaimed all of the loan by their fourth child. In a September speech to the National Socialist Women's Organization , Adolf Hitler argued that for the German woman her "world is her husband, her family, her children, and her home", [14] a policy which was reinforced by the stress on "Kinder" and "Küche" in propaganda, and the bestowing of the Cross of Honor of the German Mother on women bearing four or more babies.

During this period, women were discriminated against in employment and forced out or bribed with numerous social benefits. Medicine, the law and civil service were occupations reserved for men alone.

In one of his essays, T. Eliot reproduces and then comments upon a column in the Evening Standard of May 10, headed " 'Back to the Kitchen' Creed Denounced":.

Miss Bower of the Ministry of Transport, who moved that the association should take steps to obtain the removal of the ban i.

The report, by its abbreviation, may do less than justice to Miss Bower, but I do not think that I am unfair to the report, in finding the implication that what is Nazi is wrong, and need not be discussed on its own merits.

Incidentally, the term "relegation of women" prejudices the issue. Might one suggest that the kitchen, the children and the church could be considered to have a claim upon the attention of married women?

What is miserable is a system that makes the dual wage necessary.

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😂The Three Stooges - Zahnschmerzen (1943,Deutsch, SW)😂 Main article: Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 21 January Other examples include the following: haften to stickver haften Deutsch Amateure detain ; kaufen to buy Pokerstars Home Games, ver kaufen to sell Casino Estoril Shows hören to hearauf hören to cease ; fahren to driveer fahren to experience. Weak masculine nouns share a common case ending for genitive, dative, and accusative in the singular. In certain regions, they have replaced the traditional German dialects, especially in Northern Germany.

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