German William

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Many translated example sentences containing "William of Orange" – German-​English dictionary and search engine for German translations. Der Gefährte des Wolfes: William (German Edition) - Kindle edition by Aile, Rhianne, Sommerfeld, Anne. Romance Kindle eBooks @ tanemar.se Revealed (James & William 2) (German Edition) - Kindle edition by Bill, Lorna. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. Translations in context of "Wilhelm" in German-English from Reverso Context: Wilhelm Molterer, William was born in at Dillenburg Castle (in Germany). Translations in context of "william blake" in English-German from Reverso Context: William Blake embarks on an adventurous journey from London to the Binntal.

German William

Translations in context of "william blake" in English-German from Reverso Context: William Blake embarks on an adventurous journey from London to the Binntal. Revealed (James & William 2) (German Edition) - Kindle edition by Bill, Lorna. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. Hidden feelings: William & Nilam (German Edition) eBook: DiCarmen, Sonju: tanemar.se: Kindle Store.

German William -

Wilhelm Schickard built the first mechanical calculator. Darum sind diese herausragenden ersten Ausgaben umso kostbarer. Since , he has lectured in numerous communities in the region as a member of the Speakers' Bureau of the Kansas Humanities Council. Yearbook of German-American Studies 51 51 May 30, : — Cover, Pierre Mourgue I Vogue Cover, Benito II Vogue Keel, — See examples translated by Wilhem 20 examples with alignment. The designated successor, Philip William had nevertheless promised Snops Online freedom. Wilhelm Siercke from Hannover in the north of Germany. Register Login. Exact: Despite this, he accepted the suggestion. Incorporated into the Prussian crown. Your Majesty, so long as you have this present officer corps, you can do as you please. Historian David Fromkin states that Wilhelm had Gruppen Cl love—hate relationship with Zodiac Casino Abmelden. InWilliam became the commander of the Stettiner Gardelandwehrbataillon and in was promoted to Generalmajor.

As hereditary Protector of the Order of Saint John , he offered encouragement to the Christian order's attempts to place German medicine at the forefront of modern medical practice through its system of hospitals, nursing sisterhood and nursing schools, and nursing homes throughout the German Empire.

Wilhelm continued as Protector of the Order even after , as the position was in essence attached to the head of the House of Hohenzollern. Historians have frequently stressed the role of Wilhelm's personality in shaping his reign.

Thus, Thomas Nipperdey concludes he was:. Historian David Fromkin states that Wilhelm had a love—hate relationship with Britain.

He was wildly jealous of the British, wanting to be British, wanting to be better at being British than the British were, while at the same time hating them and resenting them because he never could be fully accepted by them".

Langer et al. William was not lacking in intelligence, but he did lack stability, disguising his deep insecurities by swagger and tough talk.

He frequently fell into depressions and hysterics William's personal instability was reflected in vacillations of policy. His actions, at home as well as abroad, lacked guidance, and therefore often bewildered or infuriated public opinion.

He was not so much concerned with gaining specific objectives, as had been the case with Bismarck, as with asserting his will. This trait in the ruler of the leading Continental power was one of the main causes of the uneasiness prevailing in Europe at the turn-of-the-century".

Wilhelm was infuriated by his sister's conversion to Greek Orthodoxy ; upon her marriage, he attempted to ban her from entering Germany. Wilhelm's most contentious relationships were with his British relations.

He craved the acceptance of his grandmother, Queen Victoria, and of the rest of her family. Between and Wilhelm resented his uncle, himself a mere heir to the British throne, treating Wilhelm not as Emperor of Germany, but merely as another nephew.

Edward's wife, the Danish-born Alexandra , first as Princess of Wales and later as Queen, also disliked Wilhelm, never forgetting the Prussian seizure of Schleswig-Holstein from Denmark in the s, as well as being annoyed over Wilhelm's treatment of his mother.

In , Wilhelm hosted a lavish wedding in Berlin for his only daughter, Victoria Louise. German foreign policy under Wilhelm II was faced with a number of significant problems.

Perhaps the most apparent was that Wilhelm was an impatient man, subjective in his reactions and affected strongly by sentiment and impulse.

He was personally ill-equipped to steer German foreign policy along a rational course. It is now widely recognised that the various spectacular acts which Wilhelm undertook in the international sphere were often partially encouraged by the German foreign policy elite.

British public opinion had been quite favourable towards the Kaiser in his first twelve years on the throne, but it turned sour in the late s.

During the First World War , he became the central target of British anti-German propaganda and the personification of a hated enemy. Wilhelm invented and spread fears of a yellow peril trying to interest other European rulers in the perils they faced by invading China; few other leaders paid attention.

Under Wilhelm, Germany invested in strengthening its colonies in Africa and the Pacific, but few became profitable and all were lost during the First World War.

A domestic triumph for Wilhelm was when his daughter Victoria Louise married the Duke of Brunswick in ; this helped heal the rift between the House of Hanover and the House of Hohenzollern that had followed the annexation of Hanover by Prussia in In his first visit to Istanbul in , Wilhelm secured the sale of German-made rifles to the Ottoman Army.

In the face of all the courtesies extended to us here, I feel that I must thank you, in my name as well as that of the Empress, for them, for the hearty reception given us in all the towns and cities we have touched, and particularly for the splendid welcome extended to us by this city of Damascus.

Deeply moved by this imposing spectacle, and likewise by the consciousness of standing on the spot where held sway one of the most chivalrous rulers of all times, the great Sultan Saladin, a knight sans peur et sans reproche, who often taught his adversaries the right conception of knighthood, I seize with joy the opportunity to render thanks, above all to the Sultan Abdul Hamid for his hospitality.

May the Sultan rest assured, and also the three hundred million Mohammedans scattered over the globe and revering in him their caliph, that the German Emperor will be and remain at all times their friend.

On 10 November, Wilhelm went to visit Baalbek before heading to Beirut to board his ship back home on 12 November. His third visit was on 15 October , as the guest of Sultan Mehmed V.

The Boxer rebellion , an anti-western uprising in China, was put down in by an international force of British, French, Russian, Austrian, Italian, American, Japanese, and German troops.

The Germans, however, forfeited any prestige that they might have gained for their participation by arriving only after the British and Japanese forces had taken Peking , the site of the fiercest fighting.

Moreover, the poor impression left by the German troops' late arrival was made worse by the Kaiser's ill-conceived farewell address, in which he commanded them, in the spirit of the Huns , to be merciless in battle.

The speech was infused with Wilhelm's fiery and chauvinistic rhetoric and clearly expressed his vision of German imperial power. There were two versions of the speech.

The Foreign Office issued an edited version, making sure to omit one particularly incendiary paragraph that they regarded as diplomatically embarrassing.

Great overseas tasks have fallen to the new German Empire, tasks far greater than many of my countrymen expected. The German Empire has, by its very character, the obligation to assist its citizens if they are being set upon in foreign lands.

The tasks that the old Roman Empire of the German nation was unable to accomplish, the new German Empire is in a position to fulfill.

The means that make this possible is our army. It has been built up during thirty years of faithful, peaceful labor, following the principles of my blessed grandfather.

You, too, have received your training in accordance with these principles, and by putting them to the test before the enemy, you should see whether they have proved their worth in you.

Your comrades in the navy have already passed this test; they have shown that the principles of your training are sound, and I am also proud of the praise that your comrades have earned over there from foreign leaders.

It is up to you to emulate them. A great task awaits you: you are to revenge the grievous injustice that has been done.

The Chinese have overturned the law of nations; they have mocked the sacredness of the envoy, the duties of hospitality in a way unheard of in world history.

It is all the more outrageous that this crime has been committed by a nation that takes pride in its ancient culture. Show the old Prussian virtue.

Present yourselves as Christians in the cheerful endurance of suffering. May honor and glory follow your banners and arms. Give the whole world an example of manliness and discipline.

You know full well that you are to fight against a cunning, brave, well-armed, and cruel enemy. When you encounter him, know this: no quarter will be given.

Prisoners will not be taken. Exercise your arms such that for a thousand years no Chinese will dare to look cross-eyed at a German.

Maintain discipline. Open the way to civilization once and for all! Now you may depart! Farewell, comrades! Should you encounter the enemy, he will be defeated!

No quarter will be given! Prisoners will not be taken! Whoever falls into your hands is forfeited. Just as a thousand years ago the Huns under their King Attila made a name for themselves, one that even today makes them seem mighty in history and legend, may the name German be affirmed by you in such a way in China that no Chinese will ever again dare to look cross-eyed at a German.

One of Wilhelm's diplomatic blunders sparked the Moroccan Crisis of , when he made a spectacular visit to Tangier , in Morocco on 31 March He conferred with representatives of Sultan Abdelaziz of Morocco.

The Kaiser declared he had come to support the sovereignty of the Sultan—a statement which amounted to a provocative challenge to French influence in Morocco.

The Sultan subsequently rejected a set of French-proposed governmental reforms and issued invitations to major world powers to a conference which would advise him on necessary reforms.

The Kaiser's presence was seen as an assertion of German interests in Morocco, in opposition to those of France. In his speech, he even made remarks in favour of Moroccan independence, and this led to friction with France, which had expanding colonial interests in Morocco, and to the Algeciras Conference , which served largely to further isolate Germany in Europe.

Wilhelm's most damaging personal blunder cost him much of his prestige and power and had a far greater impact in Germany than overseas.

Wilhelm had seen the interview as an opportunity to promote his views and ideas on Anglo-German friendship, but due to his emotional outbursts during the course of the interview, he ended up further alienating not only the British, but also the French, Russians, and Japanese.

He implied, among other things, that the Germans cared nothing for the British; that the French and Russians had attempted to incite Germany to intervene in the Second Boer War ; and that the German naval buildup was targeted against the Japanese, not Britain.

One memorable quotation from the interview was, "You English are mad, mad, mad as March hares. Wilhelm kept a very low profile for many months after the Daily Telegraph fiasco, but later exacted his revenge by forcing the resignation of the chancellor, Prince Bülow, who had abandoned the Emperor to public scorn by not having the transcript edited before its German publication.

He lost much of the influence he had previously exercised in domestic and foreign policy. Nothing Wilhelm did in the international arena was of more influence than his decision to pursue a policy of massive naval construction.

A powerful navy was Wilhelm's pet project. He had inherited from his mother a love of the British Royal Navy , which was at that time the world's largest.

He once confided to his uncle, the Prince of Wales , that his dream was to have a "fleet of my own some day".

Wilhelm's frustration over his fleet's poor showing at the Fleet Review at his grandmother Queen Victoria 's Diamond Jubilee celebrations, combined with his inability to exert German influence in South Africa following the dispatch of the Kruger telegram , led to Wilhelm taking definitive steps toward the construction of a fleet to rival that of his British cousins.

Wilhelm was fortunate to be able to call on the services of the dynamic naval officer Alfred von Tirpitz , whom he appointed to the head of the Imperial Naval Office in The new admiral had conceived of what came to be known as the "Risk Theory" or the Tirpitz Plan , by which Germany could force Britain to accede to German demands in the international arena through the threat posed by a powerful battlefleet concentrated in the North Sea.

Naval expansion under the Fleet Acts eventually led to severe financial strains in Germany by , as by Wilhelm had committed his navy to construction of the much larger, more expensive dreadnought type of battleship.

In Wilhelm reorganised top level control of the navy by creating a Naval Cabinet Marine-Kabinett equivalent to the German Imperial Military Cabinet which had previously functioned in the same capacity for both the army and navy.

The Head of the Naval Cabinet was responsible for promotions, appointments, administration, and issuing orders to naval forces. Captain Gustav von Senden-Bibran was appointed as the first head and remained so until The existing Imperial admiralty was abolished, and its responsibilities divided between two organisations.

A new position was created, equivalent to the supreme commander of the army: the Chief of the High Command of the Admiralty, or Oberkommando der Marine , was responsible for ship deployments, strategy and tactics.

Vice-Admiral Max von der Goltz was appointed in and remained in post until Construction and maintenance of ships and obtaining supplies was the responsibility of the State Secretary of the Imperial Navy Office Reichsmarineamt , responsible to the Imperial Chancellor and advising the Reichstag on naval matters.

Each of these three heads of department reported separately to Wilhelm. In addition to the expansion of the fleet, the Kiel Canal was opened in , enabling faster movements between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea.

Historians typically argue that Wilhelm was largely confined to ceremonial duties during the war—there were innumerable parades to review and honours to award.

Wilhelm was a friend of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria , and he was deeply shocked by his assassination on 28 June Wilhelm offered to support Austria-Hungary in crushing the Black Hand , the secret organisation that had plotted the killing, and even sanctioned the use of force by Austria against the perceived source of the movement— Serbia this is often called "the blank cheque".

He wanted to remain in Berlin until the crisis was resolved, but his courtiers persuaded him instead to go on his annual cruise of the North Sea on 6 July Wilhelm made erratic attempts to stay on top of the crisis via telegram, and when the Austro-Hungarian ultimatum was delivered to Serbia, he hurried back to Berlin.

He reached Berlin on 28 July, read a copy of the Serbian reply, and wrote on it:. A brilliant solution—and in barely 48 hours!

This is more than could have been expected. A great moral victory for Vienna; but with it every pretext for war falls to the ground, and [the Ambassador] Giesl had better have stayed quietly at Belgrade.

On this document, I should never have given orders for mobilisation. Unknown to the Emperor, Austro-Hungarian ministers and generals had already convinced the year-old Franz Joseph I of Austria to sign a declaration of war against Serbia.

As a direct consequence, Russia began a general mobilisation to attack Austria in defence of Serbia. On the night of 30 July, when handed a document stating that Russia would not cancel its mobilisation, Wilhelm wrote a lengthy commentary containing these observations:.

For I no longer have any doubt that England, Russia and France have agreed among themselves—knowing that our treaty obligations compel us to support Austria—to use the Austro-Serb conflict as a pretext for waging a war of annihilation against us Our dilemma over keeping faith with the old and honourable Emperor has been exploited to create a situation which gives England the excuse she has been seeking to annihilate us with a spurious appearance of justice on the pretext that she is helping France and maintaining the well-known Balance of Power in Europe, i.

More recent British authors state that Wilhelm II really declared, "Ruthlessness and weakness will start the most terrifying war of the world, whose purpose is to destroy Germany.

Because there can no longer be any doubts, England, France and Russia have conspired themselves together to fight an annihilation war against us".

When it became clear that Germany would experience a war on two fronts and that Britain would enter the war if Germany attacked France through neutral Belgium , the panic-stricken Wilhelm attempted to redirect the main attack against Russia.

When Helmuth von Moltke the younger who had chosen the old plan from , made by General von Schlieffen for the possibility of German war on two fronts told him that this was impossible, Wilhelm said: "Your uncle would have given me a different answer!

If my grandmother had been alive, she would never have allowed it. The plan supposed that it would take a long time before Russia was ready for war.

At the border between France and Germany, an attack at this more southern part of France could be stopped by the French fortress along the border.

However, Wilhelm II stopped any invasion of the Netherlands. Wilhelm's role in wartime was one of ever-decreasing power as he increasingly handled awards ceremonies and honorific duties.

The high command continued with its strategy even when it was clear that the Schlieffen plan had failed. Nevertheless, Wilhelm still retained the ultimate authority in matters of political appointment, and it was only after his consent had been gained that major changes to the high command could be effected.

Wilhelm was in favour of the dismissal of Helmuth von Moltke the Younger in September and his replacement by Erich von Falkenhayn.

In , Hindenburg and Ludendorff decided that Bethman-Hollweg was no longer acceptable to them as Chancellor and called upon the Kaiser to appoint somebody else.

When asked whom they would accept, Ludendorff recommended Georg Michaelis , a nonentity whom he barely knew. Despite this, he accepted the suggestion.

Wilhelm was at the Imperial Army headquarters in Spa, Belgium , when the uprisings in Berlin and other centres took him by surprise in late Mutiny among the ranks of his beloved Kaiserliche Marine , the imperial navy, profoundly shocked him.

After the outbreak of the German Revolution , Wilhelm could not make up his mind whether or not to abdicate.

Up to that point, he accepted that he would likely have to give up the imperial crown, but still hoped to retain the Prussian kingship.

However, this was impossible under the imperial constitution. Wilhelm thought he ruled as emperor in a personal union with Prussia.

In truth, the constitution defined the empire as a confederation of states under the permanent presidency of Prussia. The imperial crown was thus tied to the Prussian crown, meaning that Wilhelm could not renounce one crown without renouncing the other.

Wilhelm's hope of retaining at least one of his crowns was revealed as unrealistic when, in the hope of preserving the monarchy in the face of growing revolutionary unrest, Chancellor Prince Max of Baden announced Wilhelm's abdication of both titles on 9 November Prince Max himself was forced to resign later the same day, when it became clear that only Friedrich Ebert , leader of the SPD , could effectively exert control.

Later that day, one of Ebert's secretaries of state ministers , Social Democrat Philipp Scheidemann , proclaimed Germany a republic.

Wilhelm consented to the abdication only after Ludendorff's replacement, General Wilhelm Groener , had informed him that the officers and men of the army would march back in good order under Paul von Hindenburg 's command, but would certainly not fight for Wilhelm's throne on the home front.

The monarchy's last and strongest support had been broken, and finally even Hindenburg, himself a lifelong royalist , was obliged, with some embarrassment, to advise the Emperor to give up the crown.

The fact that the High Command might one day abandon the Kaiser had been foreseen in December , when Wilhelm had visited Otto von Bismarck for the last time.

Bismarck had again warned the Kaiser about the increasing influence of militarists, especially of the admirals who were pushing for the construction of a battle fleet.

Bismarck's last warning had been:. Your Majesty, so long as you have this present officer corps, you can do as you please. But when this is no longer the case, it will be very different for you.

Jena came twenty years after the death of Frederick the Great ; the crash will come twenty years after my departure if things go on like this.

On 10 November, Wilhelm crossed the border by train and went into exile in the Netherlands, which had remained neutral throughout the war. King George V wrote that he looked on his cousin as "the greatest criminal in history", but opposed Prime Minister David Lloyd George 's proposal to "hang the Kaiser".

It was reported, however, that there was little zeal in Britain to prosecute. President Woodrow Wilson of the United States opposed extradition, arguing that prosecuting Wilhelm would destabilise international order and lose the peace.

Wilhelm first settled in Amerongen , where on 28 November he issued a belated statement of abdication from both the Prussian and imperial thrones, thus formally ending the Hohenzollerns' year rule over Prussia.

Accepting the reality that he had lost both of his crowns for good, he gave up his rights to "the throne of Prussia and to the German Imperial throne connected therewith.

In , Wilhelm published the first volume of his memoirs [80] —a very slim volume that insisted he was not guilty of initiating the Great War, and defended his conduct throughout his reign, especially in matters of foreign policy.

For the remaining twenty years of his life, he entertained guests often of some standing and kept himself updated on events in Europe.

He grew a beard and allowed his famous moustache to droop, adopting a style very similar to that of his cousins King George V and Tsar Nicholas II , and still worn by Prince Michael of Kent today.

He also learned the Dutch language. Wilhelm developed a penchant for archaeology while residing at the Corfu Achilleion , excavating at the site of the Temple of Artemis in Corfu , a passion he retained in his exile.

He had bought the former Greek residence of Empress Elisabeth after her murder in He also sketched plans for grand buildings and battleships when he was bored.

In exile, one of Wilhelm's greatest passions was hunting, and he bagged thousands of animals, both beast and bird. Much of his time was spent chopping wood and thousands of trees were chopped down during his stay at Doorn.

In the early s, Wilhelm apparently hoped that the successes of the German Nazi Party would stimulate interest in a restoration of the monarchy, with his eldest grandson as the fourth Kaiser.

His second wife, Hermine, actively petitioned the Nazi government on her husband's behalf. However, Adolf Hitler , himself a veteran of the First World War , like other leading Nazis, felt nothing but contempt for the man they blamed for Germany's greatest defeat, and the petitions were ignored.

Though he played host to Hermann Göring at Doorn on at least one occasion, Wilhelm grew to distrust Hitler.

Hearing of the murder of the wife of former Chancellor Schleicher , he said "We have ceased to live under the rule of law and everyone must be prepared for the possibility that the Nazis will push their way in and put them up against the wall!

Wilhelm was also appalled at the Kristallnacht of 9—10 November , saying "I have just made my views clear to Auwi [August Wilhelm, Wilhelm's fourth son] in the presence of his brothers.

He had the nerve to say that he agreed with the Jewish pogroms and understood why they had come about.

When I told him that any decent man would describe these actions as gangsterisms, he appeared totally indifferent.

He is completely lost to our family". He builds legions, but he doesn't build a nation. A nation is created by families, a religion, traditions: it is made up out of the hearts of mothers, the wisdom of fathers, the joy and the exuberance of children For a few months I was inclined to believe in National Socialism.

I thought of it as a necessary fever. And I was gratified to see that there were, associated with it for a time, some of the wisest and most outstanding Germans.

But these, one by one, he has got rid of or even killed He has left nothing but a bunch of shirted gangsters! This man could bring home victories to our people each year, without bringing them either glory or danger.

But of our Germany, which was a nation of poets and musicians, of artists and soldiers, he has made a nation of hysterics and hermits, engulfed in a mob and led by a thousand liars or fanatics.

The Emperor has therefore charged me with making a communication. During his last year at Doorn, Wilhelm believed that Germany was the land of monarchy and therefore of Christ, and that England was the land of liberalism and therefore of Satan and the Anti-Christ.

We must drive Juda out of England just as he has been chased out of the Continent. He believed the Freemasons and Jews had caused the two world wars, aiming at a world Jewish empire with British and American gold, but that "Juda's plan has been smashed to pieces and they themselves swept out of the European Continent!

We are becoming the U. Also in came what would have been his mother's th birthday, on which he wrote ironically to a friend "Today the th birthday of my mother!

No notice is taken of it at home! No 'Memorial Service' or Nobody of the new generation knows anything about her. Wilhelm died of a pulmonary embolus in Doorn, Netherlands, on 4 June , at the age of 82, just weeks before the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union.

German soldiers had been guarding his house. Hitler, however, was reported [ by whom? Despite his personal animosity toward Wilhelm, Hitler wanted to bring his body back to Berlin for a state funeral, as Wilhelm was a symbol of Germany and Germans during the previous World War.

Hitler felt that such a funeral would demonstrate to the Germans the direct descent of the Third Reich from the old German Empire. However, Wilhelm's request that the swastika and other Nazi regalia be not displayed at his funeral was ignored, and they are featured in the photographs of the event taken by a Dutch photographer.

Wilhelm was buried in a mausoleum in the grounds of Huis Doorn, which has since become a place of pilgrimage for German monarchists. A few of these gather there every year on the anniversary of his death to pay their homage to the last German Emperor.

Three trends have characterised the writing about Wilhelm. First, the court-inspired writers considered him a martyr and a hero, often uncritically accepting the justifications provided in the Kaiser's own memoirs.

Second, there came those who judged Wilhelm to be completely unable to handle the great responsibilities of his position, a ruler too reckless to deal with power.

Third, after , later scholars have sought to transcend the passions of the early 20th century and attempted an objective portrayal of Wilhelm and his rule.

On 8 June , a year before the Great War began, The New York Times published a special supplement devoted to the 25th anniversary of the Kaiser's accession.

The accompanying story called him "the greatest factor for peace that our time can show", and credited Wilhelm with frequently rescuing Europe from the brink of war.

Partly that was a deception by German officials. For example, President Theodore Roosevelt believed the Kaiser was in control of German foreign policy because Hermann Speck von Sternburg , the German ambassador in Washington and a personal friend of Roosevelt, presented to the president messages from Chancellor von Bülow as messages from the Kaiser.

Later historians downplayed his role, arguing that senior officials learned to work around him. More recently historian John C.

Röhl has portrayed Wilhelm as the key figure in understanding the recklessness and downfall of Imperial Germany. They had seven children:. Empress Augusta, known affectionately as "Dona", was a constant companion to Wilhelm, and her death on 11 April was a devastating blow.

It also came less than a year after their son Joachim committed suicide. Wilhelm found Hermine very attractive, and greatly enjoyed her company.

The couple were wed in Doorn on 9 November [] , despite the objections of Wilhelm's monarchist supporters and his children. Hermine remained a constant companion to the ageing former emperor until his death.

It was a United Protestant denomination, bringing together Reformed and Lutheran believers. Wilhelm II was on friendly terms with the Muslim world.

Wilhelm's biographer Lamar Cecil identified Wilhelm's "curious but well-developed anti-Semitism", noting that in a friend of Wilhelm "declared that the young Kaiser's dislike of his Hebrew subjects, one rooted in a perception that they possessed an overweening influence in Germany, was so strong that it could not be overcome".

Cecil concludes:. On 2 December , Wilhelm wrote to Field Marshal August von Mackensen , denouncing his own abdication as the "deepest, most disgusting shame ever perpetrated by a person in history, the Germans have done to themselves Let no German ever forget this, nor rest until these parasites have been destroyed and exterminated from German soil!

This was a reference to William's wife, who had been educated by, among others Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and was intellectually superior to her husband.

She was also at times very outspoken in her opposition to official policies as she was a liberal. Hödel used a revolver to shoot at the then year-old Emperor, while he and his daughter, Princess Louise , paraded in their carriage on Unter den Linden.

In the commotion one of the individuals who tried to apprehend Hödel suffered severe internal injuries and died two days later.

Hödel was seized immediately. He was tried, convicted, sentenced to death, and executed on 16 August A second attempt to assassinate William I was made on 2 June by Dr.

Karl Nobiling. As the Emperor drove past in an open carriage, the assassin fired two shots from a shotgun at him from the window of a house off the Unter den Linden.

Nobiling shot himself in an attempt to commit suicide. While William survived this attack, the assassin died from his self-inflicted wound three months later.

Despite the fact that Hödel had been expelled from the Social Democratic Party , his actions were used as a pretext by Bismarck to ban the party.

To do this, Bismarck partnered with Ludwig Bamberger , a Liberal, who had written on the subject of Socialism, "If I don't want any chickens, then I must smash the eggs.

The laws were extended every 2—3 years. Despite the reprisals the Social Democratic Party increased its influence among the masses. Under pressure of the mass working-class movement the laws were repealed on 1 October In response William, his wife Augusta, and his son the crown prince travelled to Russia against the advice of Bismarck to mend fences in face-to-face talks.

However, by once again threatening to resign, Bismarck overcame the opposition of William to a closer alliance with Austria.

Another assassination attempt failed on 18 September when William unveiled the Niederwalddenkmal in Rüdesheim.

A group of anarchists had prepared an attack using dynamite which failed due to the wet weather. The Berlin Conference of —85 organized by Otto von Bismarck can be seen as the formalization of the Scramble for Africa.

Claiming much of the left-over territories in Africa and Oceania that were yet unclaimed, Germany managed to build the large German colonial empire.

Despite the assassination attempts and William's unpopular role in the uprising, he and his wife were very popular, especially in their later years.

Many people considered them the personification of "the old Prussia" and liked their austere and simple lifestyle.

He was buried on 16 March at the Mausoleum at Park Charlottenburg. The best-known among them are the Kyffhäuser monument —96 in Thuringia , the monument at Porta Westfalica and the mounted statue of William at the Deutsches Eck in Koblenz The statue next to the Stadtschloss, Berlin was melted down by the government of East Berlin in From to more than 1, memorials to William I were constructed.

It was a United Protestant denomination, bringing together Reformed and Lutheran believers. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 28 August For other uses, see William I. German Emperor.

See list. Charlottenburg Palace. Augusta of Saxe-Weimar. Andrew , 20 June [52] Knight of St. Alexander Nevsky , 20 June Knight of St.

Anna , 1st Class, 20 June [53] Knight of St. Januarius Grand Cross of St. Ancestors of William I, German Emperor 8.

Prince Augustus William of Prussia [67] 4. Frederick William II of Prussia [65] 9. Duchess Luise of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel [67] 2. Princess Frederica Louisa of Hesse-Darmstadt [65] Countess Palatine Caroline of Zweibrücken [68] 1.

William I, German Emperor Princess Elisabeth Albertine of Saxe-Hildburghausen [69] 3. Duchess Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz Prince George William of Hesse-Darmstadt [70] 7.

Princess Friederike of Hesse-Darmstadt [66] III: Bismarck und das Reich. Auflage, Kohlhammer Verlag , Stuttgart , p.

Deutsches Historisches Museum. Retrieved 12 June Dettman and J. Kunstverlag Josef Fink, Lindenberg. Cambridge University Press.

Damals in German. Eine Dokumentensammlung nebst Einführungen. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart , pp. History of the German Empire. Merkaba Press.

Kohlhammer, Stuttgart , p. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 13 April Bismarck posthumus p. Bismarck and the creation of the Second Reich, by F.

Darmstaedter - pp. Archived from the original on 22 December Retrieved 5 November Berlin Retrieved 26 December Retrieved 15 July Hof- und Staatshandbuch für das Königreich Hannover: Hof- und Staats-Handbuch des Königreichs Württemberg: Der Elephanten-Orden und seine Ritter: eine historische Abhandlung über die ersten Spuren dieses Ordens und dessen fernere Entwicklung bis zu seiner gegenwärtigen Gestalt, und nächstdem ein Material zur Personalhistorie, nach den Quellen des Königlichen Geheimen-Staatsarchivs und des Königlichen Ordenskapitelsarchivs zu Kopenhagen.

Gedruckt in der Berlingschen Officin. Official website of the Royal Family of Hawaii. Retrieved 2 December Shabanov Order of the Holy Apostle Andrew the First-called Order of the Holy Great Martyr Catherine Notizia storica del nobilissimo ordine supremo della santissima Annunziata.

Sunto degli statuti, catalogo dei cavalieri in Italian. Eredi Botta. Retrieved 4 March Retrieved Retrieved 8 May Retrieved 21 March Retrieved 23 May Bourdeaux: Frederic Guillaume Birnstiel.

House of Hohenzollern. Unification of Germany. Treaty of Vienna. German Empire proclaimed. Monarchs of Prussia. Monarchs of Germany. Napoleon I.

Francis I Ferdinand I. Archduke John of Austria Imperial Regent. Franz Joseph I. Princes of Prussia. The generations are numbered from the ascension of Frederick I as King in Prussia in Frederick William I.

German Confederations — Napoleon I —

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Unknown to the Emperor, Austro-Hungarian ministers and generals had already convinced the year-old Franz Joseph I of Austria to sign a declaration of war against Serbia.

As a direct consequence, Russia began a general mobilisation to attack Austria in defence of Serbia. On the night of 30 July, when handed a document stating that Russia would not cancel its mobilisation, Wilhelm wrote a lengthy commentary containing these observations:.

For I no longer have any doubt that England, Russia and France have agreed among themselves—knowing that our treaty obligations compel us to support Austria—to use the Austro-Serb conflict as a pretext for waging a war of annihilation against us Our dilemma over keeping faith with the old and honourable Emperor has been exploited to create a situation which gives England the excuse she has been seeking to annihilate us with a spurious appearance of justice on the pretext that she is helping France and maintaining the well-known Balance of Power in Europe, i.

More recent British authors state that Wilhelm II really declared, "Ruthlessness and weakness will start the most terrifying war of the world, whose purpose is to destroy Germany.

Because there can no longer be any doubts, England, France and Russia have conspired themselves together to fight an annihilation war against us".

When it became clear that Germany would experience a war on two fronts and that Britain would enter the war if Germany attacked France through neutral Belgium , the panic-stricken Wilhelm attempted to redirect the main attack against Russia.

When Helmuth von Moltke the younger who had chosen the old plan from , made by General von Schlieffen for the possibility of German war on two fronts told him that this was impossible, Wilhelm said: "Your uncle would have given me a different answer!

If my grandmother had been alive, she would never have allowed it. The plan supposed that it would take a long time before Russia was ready for war.

At the border between France and Germany, an attack at this more southern part of France could be stopped by the French fortress along the border.

However, Wilhelm II stopped any invasion of the Netherlands. Wilhelm's role in wartime was one of ever-decreasing power as he increasingly handled awards ceremonies and honorific duties.

The high command continued with its strategy even when it was clear that the Schlieffen plan had failed. Nevertheless, Wilhelm still retained the ultimate authority in matters of political appointment, and it was only after his consent had been gained that major changes to the high command could be effected.

Wilhelm was in favour of the dismissal of Helmuth von Moltke the Younger in September and his replacement by Erich von Falkenhayn.

In , Hindenburg and Ludendorff decided that Bethman-Hollweg was no longer acceptable to them as Chancellor and called upon the Kaiser to appoint somebody else.

When asked whom they would accept, Ludendorff recommended Georg Michaelis , a nonentity whom he barely knew. Despite this, he accepted the suggestion.

Wilhelm was at the Imperial Army headquarters in Spa, Belgium , when the uprisings in Berlin and other centres took him by surprise in late Mutiny among the ranks of his beloved Kaiserliche Marine , the imperial navy, profoundly shocked him.

After the outbreak of the German Revolution , Wilhelm could not make up his mind whether or not to abdicate. Up to that point, he accepted that he would likely have to give up the imperial crown, but still hoped to retain the Prussian kingship.

However, this was impossible under the imperial constitution. Wilhelm thought he ruled as emperor in a personal union with Prussia.

In truth, the constitution defined the empire as a confederation of states under the permanent presidency of Prussia.

The imperial crown was thus tied to the Prussian crown, meaning that Wilhelm could not renounce one crown without renouncing the other.

Wilhelm's hope of retaining at least one of his crowns was revealed as unrealistic when, in the hope of preserving the monarchy in the face of growing revolutionary unrest, Chancellor Prince Max of Baden announced Wilhelm's abdication of both titles on 9 November Prince Max himself was forced to resign later the same day, when it became clear that only Friedrich Ebert , leader of the SPD , could effectively exert control.

Later that day, one of Ebert's secretaries of state ministers , Social Democrat Philipp Scheidemann , proclaimed Germany a republic. Wilhelm consented to the abdication only after Ludendorff's replacement, General Wilhelm Groener , had informed him that the officers and men of the army would march back in good order under Paul von Hindenburg 's command, but would certainly not fight for Wilhelm's throne on the home front.

The monarchy's last and strongest support had been broken, and finally even Hindenburg, himself a lifelong royalist , was obliged, with some embarrassment, to advise the Emperor to give up the crown.

The fact that the High Command might one day abandon the Kaiser had been foreseen in December , when Wilhelm had visited Otto von Bismarck for the last time.

Bismarck had again warned the Kaiser about the increasing influence of militarists, especially of the admirals who were pushing for the construction of a battle fleet.

Bismarck's last warning had been:. Your Majesty, so long as you have this present officer corps, you can do as you please. But when this is no longer the case, it will be very different for you.

Jena came twenty years after the death of Frederick the Great ; the crash will come twenty years after my departure if things go on like this.

On 10 November, Wilhelm crossed the border by train and went into exile in the Netherlands, which had remained neutral throughout the war.

King George V wrote that he looked on his cousin as "the greatest criminal in history", but opposed Prime Minister David Lloyd George 's proposal to "hang the Kaiser".

It was reported, however, that there was little zeal in Britain to prosecute. President Woodrow Wilson of the United States opposed extradition, arguing that prosecuting Wilhelm would destabilise international order and lose the peace.

Wilhelm first settled in Amerongen , where on 28 November he issued a belated statement of abdication from both the Prussian and imperial thrones, thus formally ending the Hohenzollerns' year rule over Prussia.

Accepting the reality that he had lost both of his crowns for good, he gave up his rights to "the throne of Prussia and to the German Imperial throne connected therewith.

In , Wilhelm published the first volume of his memoirs [80] —a very slim volume that insisted he was not guilty of initiating the Great War, and defended his conduct throughout his reign, especially in matters of foreign policy.

For the remaining twenty years of his life, he entertained guests often of some standing and kept himself updated on events in Europe. He grew a beard and allowed his famous moustache to droop, adopting a style very similar to that of his cousins King George V and Tsar Nicholas II , and still worn by Prince Michael of Kent today.

He also learned the Dutch language. Wilhelm developed a penchant for archaeology while residing at the Corfu Achilleion , excavating at the site of the Temple of Artemis in Corfu , a passion he retained in his exile.

He had bought the former Greek residence of Empress Elisabeth after her murder in He also sketched plans for grand buildings and battleships when he was bored.

In exile, one of Wilhelm's greatest passions was hunting, and he bagged thousands of animals, both beast and bird. Much of his time was spent chopping wood and thousands of trees were chopped down during his stay at Doorn.

In the early s, Wilhelm apparently hoped that the successes of the German Nazi Party would stimulate interest in a restoration of the monarchy, with his eldest grandson as the fourth Kaiser.

His second wife, Hermine, actively petitioned the Nazi government on her husband's behalf. However, Adolf Hitler , himself a veteran of the First World War , like other leading Nazis, felt nothing but contempt for the man they blamed for Germany's greatest defeat, and the petitions were ignored.

Though he played host to Hermann Göring at Doorn on at least one occasion, Wilhelm grew to distrust Hitler. Hearing of the murder of the wife of former Chancellor Schleicher , he said "We have ceased to live under the rule of law and everyone must be prepared for the possibility that the Nazis will push their way in and put them up against the wall!

Wilhelm was also appalled at the Kristallnacht of 9—10 November , saying "I have just made my views clear to Auwi [August Wilhelm, Wilhelm's fourth son] in the presence of his brothers.

He had the nerve to say that he agreed with the Jewish pogroms and understood why they had come about. When I told him that any decent man would describe these actions as gangsterisms, he appeared totally indifferent.

He is completely lost to our family". He builds legions, but he doesn't build a nation. A nation is created by families, a religion, traditions: it is made up out of the hearts of mothers, the wisdom of fathers, the joy and the exuberance of children For a few months I was inclined to believe in National Socialism.

I thought of it as a necessary fever. And I was gratified to see that there were, associated with it for a time, some of the wisest and most outstanding Germans.

But these, one by one, he has got rid of or even killed He has left nothing but a bunch of shirted gangsters!

This man could bring home victories to our people each year, without bringing them either glory or danger. But of our Germany, which was a nation of poets and musicians, of artists and soldiers, he has made a nation of hysterics and hermits, engulfed in a mob and led by a thousand liars or fanatics.

The Emperor has therefore charged me with making a communication. During his last year at Doorn, Wilhelm believed that Germany was the land of monarchy and therefore of Christ, and that England was the land of liberalism and therefore of Satan and the Anti-Christ.

We must drive Juda out of England just as he has been chased out of the Continent. He believed the Freemasons and Jews had caused the two world wars, aiming at a world Jewish empire with British and American gold, but that "Juda's plan has been smashed to pieces and they themselves swept out of the European Continent!

We are becoming the U. Also in came what would have been his mother's th birthday, on which he wrote ironically to a friend "Today the th birthday of my mother!

No notice is taken of it at home! No 'Memorial Service' or Nobody of the new generation knows anything about her. Wilhelm died of a pulmonary embolus in Doorn, Netherlands, on 4 June , at the age of 82, just weeks before the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union.

German soldiers had been guarding his house. Hitler, however, was reported [ by whom? Despite his personal animosity toward Wilhelm, Hitler wanted to bring his body back to Berlin for a state funeral, as Wilhelm was a symbol of Germany and Germans during the previous World War.

Hitler felt that such a funeral would demonstrate to the Germans the direct descent of the Third Reich from the old German Empire. However, Wilhelm's request that the swastika and other Nazi regalia be not displayed at his funeral was ignored, and they are featured in the photographs of the event taken by a Dutch photographer.

Wilhelm was buried in a mausoleum in the grounds of Huis Doorn, which has since become a place of pilgrimage for German monarchists.

A few of these gather there every year on the anniversary of his death to pay their homage to the last German Emperor. Three trends have characterised the writing about Wilhelm.

First, the court-inspired writers considered him a martyr and a hero, often uncritically accepting the justifications provided in the Kaiser's own memoirs.

Second, there came those who judged Wilhelm to be completely unable to handle the great responsibilities of his position, a ruler too reckless to deal with power.

Third, after , later scholars have sought to transcend the passions of the early 20th century and attempted an objective portrayal of Wilhelm and his rule.

On 8 June , a year before the Great War began, The New York Times published a special supplement devoted to the 25th anniversary of the Kaiser's accession.

The accompanying story called him "the greatest factor for peace that our time can show", and credited Wilhelm with frequently rescuing Europe from the brink of war.

Partly that was a deception by German officials. For example, President Theodore Roosevelt believed the Kaiser was in control of German foreign policy because Hermann Speck von Sternburg , the German ambassador in Washington and a personal friend of Roosevelt, presented to the president messages from Chancellor von Bülow as messages from the Kaiser.

Later historians downplayed his role, arguing that senior officials learned to work around him. More recently historian John C.

Röhl has portrayed Wilhelm as the key figure in understanding the recklessness and downfall of Imperial Germany. They had seven children:.

Empress Augusta, known affectionately as "Dona", was a constant companion to Wilhelm, and her death on 11 April was a devastating blow. It also came less than a year after their son Joachim committed suicide.

Wilhelm found Hermine very attractive, and greatly enjoyed her company. The couple were wed in Doorn on 9 November [] , despite the objections of Wilhelm's monarchist supporters and his children.

Hermine remained a constant companion to the ageing former emperor until his death. It was a United Protestant denomination, bringing together Reformed and Lutheran believers.

Wilhelm II was on friendly terms with the Muslim world. Wilhelm's biographer Lamar Cecil identified Wilhelm's "curious but well-developed anti-Semitism", noting that in a friend of Wilhelm "declared that the young Kaiser's dislike of his Hebrew subjects, one rooted in a perception that they possessed an overweening influence in Germany, was so strong that it could not be overcome".

Cecil concludes:. On 2 December , Wilhelm wrote to Field Marshal August von Mackensen , denouncing his own abdication as the "deepest, most disgusting shame ever perpetrated by a person in history, the Germans have done to themselves Let no German ever forget this, nor rest until these parasites have been destroyed and exterminated from German soil!

I believe the best thing would be gas! From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from William II of Germany. German Emperor.

Portrait in , by T. See list. Princess Hermine Reuss of Greiz. This section includes a list of references , but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations.

Please help to improve this section by introducing more precise citations. February Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Daily Telegraph Affair.

Further information: German entry into World War I. Main article: July Crisis. An das deutsche Volk. Extract from Wilhelm's public address for mobilisation, 6 August Main article: Abdication of Wilhelm II.

Statement of Abdication. Huis Doorn in Huis Doorn today. Austria-Hungary : [] Grand Cross of St. Andrew , Knight of St.

Anna , 1st Class, Knight of St. William I, German Emperor 9. Duchess Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz 2. Princess Augusta of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna of Russia 1.

Wilhelm II, German Emperor Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Princess Louise of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg 3.

Victoria, Princess Royal Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn 7. Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld.

Retrieved 6 December Archived from the original on 18 March Flagstaff, Arizona: Light Technology Publishing.

Archived from the original on 27 September Retrieved 16 September Oscar Klaussmann German History in Documents and Images.

Retrieved 24 December Entwicklungslinien Volume ed. Cambridge University Press. Röhl Journal The London Gazette. Retrieved 2 October British Pathe News.

Islam and the European Empires illustrated ed. Oxford University Press. Landau Pan-Islam: History and Politics. The Economist. Retrieved 2 September The Literary Digest.

Archived from the original on 15 October Retrieved 4 November Retrieved 23 December Braunschweig Riddere af Elefantordenen, — in Danish.

Syddansk Universitetsforlag. Bergroth Vapaudenristin ritarikunta: Isänmaan puolesta in Finnish. Werner Söderström Osakeyhtiö. Retrieved 10 August Retrieved 17 October Retrieved 21 March House of Hohenzollern.

Monarchy abolished. Republic declared. Princes of Prussia. The generations are numbered from the ascension of Frederick I as King in Prussia in Frederick William I.

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Crown Prince Wilhelm. Duchess Cecilie of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. Prince Eitel Friedrich. Duchess Sophia Charlotte of Oldenburg. Prince Adalbert. Princess Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen.

Prince August Wilhelm. Prince Alexander Ferdinand — Countess Ina Marie von Bassewitz. Princess Marie-Auguste of Anhalt. However, the truly controversial part was the plan to keep the length of military service raised in from two years at three years.

Bismarck, a conservative Prussian Junker and loyal friend of the king, liked to see his working relationship with William as that of a vassal to his feudal superior.

Nonetheless, it was Bismarck who effectively directed the politics, domestic as well as foreign; on several occasions he gained William's assent by threatening to resign.

After the latter was won by Prussia, William wanted to march on to Vienna and annex Austria, but was dissuaded from doing so by Bismarck and Crown Prince Frederick.

During a heated discussion, Bismarck threatened to resign if William continued to Vienna; Bismarck got his way.

William had to content himself with becoming the de facto ruler of the northern two-thirds of Germany. Prussia annexed several of Austria's allies north of the Main, as well as Schleswig-Holstein.

It also forced Saxe-Lauenburg into a personal union with Prussia which became a full union in In , the North German Confederation was created as a federation federally organised state of the North German and Central German states under the permanent presidency of Prussia.

William assumed the Bundespräsidium , the presidium of the Confederation; the post was a hereditary office of the Prussian crown. Not expressis verbis , but in function he was the head of state.

Bismarck intentionally avoided a title such as Präsident as it sounded too republican. Via treaties with the South German states, he also became commander of their armies in times of war.

This was decided on by the legislative organs, the Reichstag and Bundesrat, and William agreed to this on 18 December in the presence of a Reichstag delegation.

The new constitution and the title of Emperor came into effect on 1 January William, however, hesitated to accept the constitutional title, as he feared that it would overshadow his own title as King of Prussia.

The date was chosen as the coronation date of the first Prussian king in In the national memory , 18 January became the day of the foundation of the Empire Reichsgründungstag , although it did not have a constitutional significance.

To many intellectuals, the coronation of William was associated with the restoration of the Holy Roman Empire.

Felix Dahn wrote a poem, " Macte senex Imperator " Hail thee, old emperor in which he nicknamed William Barbablanca whitebeard , a play on the name of the medieval emperor Frederick Barbarossa redbeard.

According to the King asleep in mountain legend, Barbarossa slept under the Kyffhäuser mountain until Germany had need of him.

William I was thus portrayed as a second coming of Barbarossa. The Kyffhäuser Monument portrays both emperors.

In he arbitrated a boundary dispute between Great Britain and the United States, deciding in favor of the U.

In his memoirs, Bismarck describes William as an old-fashioned, courteous, infallibly polite gentleman and a genuine Prussian officer, whose good common sense was occasionally undermined by "female influences".

This was a reference to William's wife, who had been educated by, among others Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and was intellectually superior to her husband.

She was also at times very outspoken in her opposition to official policies as she was a liberal. Hödel used a revolver to shoot at the then year-old Emperor, while he and his daughter, Princess Louise , paraded in their carriage on Unter den Linden.

In the commotion one of the individuals who tried to apprehend Hödel suffered severe internal injuries and died two days later. Hödel was seized immediately.

He was tried, convicted, sentenced to death, and executed on 16 August A second attempt to assassinate William I was made on 2 June by Dr. Karl Nobiling.

As the Emperor drove past in an open carriage, the assassin fired two shots from a shotgun at him from the window of a house off the Unter den Linden.

Nobiling shot himself in an attempt to commit suicide. While William survived this attack, the assassin died from his self-inflicted wound three months later.

Despite the fact that Hödel had been expelled from the Social Democratic Party , his actions were used as a pretext by Bismarck to ban the party.

To do this, Bismarck partnered with Ludwig Bamberger , a Liberal, who had written on the subject of Socialism, "If I don't want any chickens, then I must smash the eggs.

The laws were extended every 2—3 years. Despite the reprisals the Social Democratic Party increased its influence among the masses. Under pressure of the mass working-class movement the laws were repealed on 1 October In response William, his wife Augusta, and his son the crown prince travelled to Russia against the advice of Bismarck to mend fences in face-to-face talks.

However, by once again threatening to resign, Bismarck overcame the opposition of William to a closer alliance with Austria. Another assassination attempt failed on 18 September when William unveiled the Niederwalddenkmal in Rüdesheim.

A group of anarchists had prepared an attack using dynamite which failed due to the wet weather. The Berlin Conference of —85 organized by Otto von Bismarck can be seen as the formalization of the Scramble for Africa.

Claiming much of the left-over territories in Africa and Oceania that were yet unclaimed, Germany managed to build the large German colonial empire.

Despite the assassination attempts and William's unpopular role in the uprising, he and his wife were very popular, especially in their later years.

Many people considered them the personification of "the old Prussia" and liked their austere and simple lifestyle.

He was buried on 16 March at the Mausoleum at Park Charlottenburg. The best-known among them are the Kyffhäuser monument —96 in Thuringia , the monument at Porta Westfalica and the mounted statue of William at the Deutsches Eck in Koblenz The statue next to the Stadtschloss, Berlin was melted down by the government of East Berlin in From to more than 1, memorials to William I were constructed.

It was a United Protestant denomination, bringing together Reformed and Lutheran believers. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 28 August For other uses, see William I. German Emperor.

See list. Charlottenburg Palace. Augusta of Saxe-Weimar. Andrew , 20 June [52] Knight of St. Alexander Nevsky , 20 June Knight of St.

Anna , 1st Class, 20 June [53] Knight of St. Januarius Grand Cross of St. Ancestors of William I, German Emperor 8. Prince Augustus William of Prussia [67] 4.

Frederick William II of Prussia [65] 9. Duchess Luise of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel [67] 2. Princess Frederica Louisa of Hesse-Darmstadt [65] Countess Palatine Caroline of Zweibrücken [68] 1.

William I, German Emperor Princess Elisabeth Albertine of Saxe-Hildburghausen [69] 3. Duchess Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz Prince George William of Hesse-Darmstadt [70] 7.

Princess Friederike of Hesse-Darmstadt [66] III: Bismarck und das Reich. Auflage, Kohlhammer Verlag , Stuttgart , p. Deutsches Historisches Museum.

Retrieved 12 June Dettman and J. Kunstverlag Josef Fink, Lindenberg. Cambridge University Press. Damals in German. Eine Dokumentensammlung nebst Einführungen.

Kohlhammer, Stuttgart , pp. History of the German Empire. Merkaba Press. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart , p. Oxford University Press.

Retrieved 13 April Bismarck posthumus p. Bismarck and the creation of the Second Reich, by F. Darmstaedter - pp. Archived from the original on 22 December Retrieved 5 November Berlin Retrieved 26 December Retrieved 15 July Hof- und Staatshandbuch für das Königreich Hannover: Hof- und Staats-Handbuch des Königreichs Württemberg: Der Elephanten-Orden und seine Ritter: eine historische Abhandlung über die ersten Spuren dieses Ordens und dessen fernere Entwicklung bis zu seiner gegenwärtigen Gestalt, und nächstdem ein Material zur Personalhistorie, nach den Quellen des Königlichen Geheimen-Staatsarchivs und des Königlichen Ordenskapitelsarchivs zu Kopenhagen.

Gedruckt in der Berlingschen Officin. Official website of the Royal Family of Hawaii. Retrieved 2 December Shabanov Order of the Holy Apostle Andrew the First-called

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